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Indian Law

Government Resources

BroadbandUSA Tribal Nations (National Telecommunications and Information Administration)
This National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) page contains information about federal programs intended to expand broadband connectivity on tribal lands, including the Tribal Broadband Connectivity Program.

Federal Communications Commission National Broadband Map
This map created by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) displays internet service availability across the United States. The site also includes a Broadband Funding map that provides an overview of broadband infrastructure deployment projects funded by the federal government, including projects funded by the Tribal Broadband Connectivity Program.

Federal Register Broadband Policy
The Federal Register displays regularly published documents created by federal agencies. The Broadband Policy page displays notices, rules, proposed rules, and presidential documents related to broadband policy. Using the "Customize this search" function, locate documents about telecommunications, internet, and broadband access in tribal communities.  

First Responder Network Authority Tribal Nations Page (National Telecommunications and Information Agency)
The First Responder Network Authority oversees the nation’s communications network dedicated to emergency responders and public safety. This page provides information about the Authority's protocol for consulting and collaborating with tribal communities.

Indigenous Connectivity and Technology Division (Bureau of Indian Affairs)
The Bureau of Indian Affairs Indigenous Connectivity and Technology Division helps Tribal Nations manage and develop new wireless communications and other technological services on Tribal lands. Use this website to access information about broadband authorization and permitting and expanding broadband access.

Internet For All (National Telecommunications Information Agency)
This website highlights the NTIA's Internet-for-All initiative. The site summarizes various funding programs, including the Broadband Equity, Access, and Deployment (BEAD) Program and the Tribal Broadband Connectivity Program.

Office of Native Affairs and Policy (Federal Communications Commission)
This FCC agency develops policies and programs to address the lack of adequate communications services on Tribal lands, plans and leads the FCC's outreach efforts to Tribal governments and agencies, and disseminates information about FCC initiatives.

Rural Development Tribal Relations Office (U.S. Department of Agriculture)
The Rural Development Tribal Relations Office provides information about programs designed to improve Tribal infrastructure, including broadband and internet access. Use this website to learn about the ReConnect Loan and Grant Program.

Universal Service Administrative Co. Tribal Nations Page
The Universal Service Administrative Co. is a nonprofit organization that promotes phone and internet connectivity in the United States by administering the Universal Service Fund under the guidance of the FCC.  

U.S. Congressional Research Service
The Congressional Research Service (CRS) analyzes current policies and presents the impact of proposed policy alternatives to congressional committees and Members of Congress. Search for CRS reports, memoranda, and expert testimony about telecommunications issues in Indian Country by using a combination of keyword terms, including tribal, tribe, internet, and broadband

U.S. Government Accountability Office Telecommunications Topic 
The Government Accountability Office is a non-partisan agency that provides auditing, evaluative, and investigative services for the United States Congress. The Telecommunications topic includes reports and recommendations about national broadband deployment strategies and funding programs.

U.S. House Subcommittee on Indian and Insular Affairs
This House of Representatives subcommittee has jurisdiction over House measures relating to the welfare of Native Americans. It oversees legislation on the management of Indian lands in general and on more specific matters, including telecommunications infrastructure development.

U.S. Senate Committee on Indian Affairs
The Senate Committee on Indian Affairs focuses on the unique issues that Indigenous peoples face, including economic and infrastructure development, land management, and claims against the United States.

Arizona Commerce Authority Broadband Page
The Arizona Commerce Authority coordinates broadband development activities in the state. This website highlights broadband-access issues in Arizona, including issues affecting Arizona's tribal communities. 

National Conference of State Legislators Broadband Legislation Database
The National Conference of State Legislators (NCSL) serves America's states, commonwealths, and territories and the District of Columbia. Its Broadband Database tracks legislation regarding broadband policy across state legislatures, including topics related to broadband funding, infrastructure, accessibility, mapping, governance, and net neutrality. It reviews enacted and pending legislation since 2023 and is updated monthly as legislation is identified by NCSL staff.

Web Resources

American Indian Policy Institute (Sandra Day O’Connor College of Law)
The American Indian Policy Institute (AIPI) is a national-level think tank that seeks to develop tribally driven solutions to a broad range of issues affecting Tribal nations, with a special focus on broadband technology and digital equity. The AIPI website contains original research and links to valuable resources about telecommunications issues affecting Indian Country.

Benton Institute for Broadband & Society
The Benton Institute for Broadband & Society is a nonprofit organization that advocates for digital access through policy promotion and article publication. Use the search terms tribe or tribal in the search bar to find articles about telecommunications issues affecting Indian Country.

Institute for Local Self-Reliance Indigenous Broadband Networks Map
The Indigenous Broadband Networks Map shows all broadband networks that are owned by a Native Nation and contains links to those networks’ websites. The site also includes links to resources about Tribal broadband and digital-access issues. 

Internet Society Indigenous Connectivity Page
The Internet Society is a charitable organization that supports and promotes internet development throughout the world. The Indigenous Connectivity page contains policy documents and other resources about Internet access and inclusion issues affecting Indigenous People in North America.

National Congress of American Indians Infrastructure & Community Development Policy Portfolio
The National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) is a non-profit organization that aims to provide a unified voice for Tribal nations on policy issues and initiatives. This NCAI page displays recent policy documents and testimonies to Congress about infrastructure issues, including telecommunications matters.  Review older resolutions and policy documents using the NCAI's Browse page.

National Tribal Telecommunications Association
The National Tribal Telecommunications Association is an advocacy group for tribally owned telecommunications companies. The NTTA website contains information about member companies and copies of policy documents that NTTA has provided to federal agencies regarding tribal telecommunications issues.

Broadband Breakfast Tribal Page
Broadband Breakfast is an online news site dedicated to reporting on broadband technology and internet policy, and this dedicated page covers Tribal Broadband News.

Cronkite News Indigenous Communities (Walter Cronkite School of Journalism and Mass Communication)
This news website contains timely articles about issues affecting Indigenous communities, including issues related to internet and broadband access. 

Indian Country Today
Indian Country Today is a daily digital news platform that covers the Indigenous world, including American Indians and Alaska Natives. Technology Page is a Native American news, information, and entertainment website. This page includes articles about broadband, spectrum, and telecommunications programs.

Secondary Sources and Databases

Academic Search Ultimate
This multidisciplinary periodical index provides access to popular press magazines and scholarly journals from nearly every academic discipline (available on campus or remotely with ASURITE).

ACM Digital Library
This database of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) contains a variety of publications about the computing profession, including journals, conference proceedings, and books. Use it to search for articles about broadband and internet use in tribal communities. Access is provided by ASU (available on campus or remotely with ASURITE).

Google Scholar (with Library Links)
Find scholarly literature, including peer-reviewed journal articles, books, theses and dissertations, conference papers, pre-prints, technical reports, and other publications for all research disciplines. The link enables ASU affiliates to include ASU Library’s full text and InterLibrary Loan Services in a search (available in campus or remotely with ASURITE).

Hein Online Indigenous Peoples of the Americas: History Culture and Law
This database provides PDF full text of law reviews and journals; historical volumes of federal documents like the Federal Register; Supreme Court cases as they appear in U.S. Reports; and Attorney General opinions. Use it to locate agency reports, Senate and House committee hearing transcripts, and academic articles about telecommunication issues in Indian Country. Access is provided by ASU (available on campus or remotely with ASURITE).

You can search for books in the ASU Library catalog by using subject headings such as: Indians of North America -- Communication Indians of North America -- Computer Networks, and Digital Divide -- United States. You can limit your results to e-books by clicking “Full Text Online” on the right. Print books available in other ASU libraries may be requested and delivered to you at the law library.

Network Sovereignty: Building the Internet Across Indian Country (Marisa Elena Duarte, 2017)
This book examines case studies of tribal governments building out broadband infrastructures to reveal how the processes of network design and deployment embed these information and communication infrastructures within the ongoing exercise of tribal sovereignty in the U.S.  This book is available in print at the Hayden Library and online through ProQuest Ebook Central (available on campus or remotely with ASURITE).

The Inequality of COVID-19: Immediate Health Communication, Governance and Response in Four Indigenous Communities (Eric E. Otenyo and Lisa J. Hardy, 2022)
The book discusses the COVID-19 public health emergency's impact on Indigenous communities throughout the word. Chapter 3 addresses the impact that poor internet service had on the Navajo Nation. This book can be found online through Elsevier ScienceDirect Books and Project Muse (both available on campus or remotely with ASURITE).

Journal of Information Policy
The Journal of Information Policy is a publication of the Institute for Information Policy at The Pennsylvania State University. It is a scholarly journal that publishes articles, comments, book reviews, literature reviews, and invited commentary on significant information policy issues. It is available online with open access through the Scholarly Publishing Collective. Its is also available through ProQuest (available on campus or remotely with ASURITE). Find relevant articles about telecommunication issues in Indian Country by using search terms like tribe or tribal

Telecommunications Policy
This is a scholarly research journal concerned about the impact of digitalization in the economy and society.  It is available online through Elsevier Science Direct (available on campus or remotely with ASURITE). Search for relevant articles using terms like tribe or tribal.