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Criminal Law

Primary Authority

United States Code
Title 18 of the United States code enumerates federal sex crimes including sexual abuse and exploitation as well as provisions related to monitoring of sex offenders. 

Arizona Revised Statutes
Title 13, Chapter 35.1 lists sex crimes involving children. Title 13, Chapter 14 lists most sexual other offenses the state recognizes. Title 13, Chapter 32 concerns sex workers. Other provisions in Title 13 concern related matters, such as sex offender registration and treatment.

Texts and Treatises

You can search for resources in the ASU Library collection in the ASU Library catalog by using subject headings such as Sex Offenders and Sex Crimes.

Internet Sex Offenders (Michael C. Seto, 2013)
This resource examines the nexus between indirect online victimization including child pornography with offenders' online solicitation and contact with minors. It details risk assessments of offenders and strategies to prevent reoffending beyond prison time, presenting a proposal for effective cycles of treatment and supervision.

The Oxford Handbook of Gender, Sex, and Crime (Rosemary Gartner & Bill McCarthy eds., 2014)
Offering a variety of perspectives on contemporary and historical issues involving sex crimes, including offenses against children and an examination of punishments for sex crimes.

Preventing Sexual Violence: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Overcoming a Rape Culture (Nicola Henry & Anastasia Powell eds., 2014)
This anthology of academic works examines the shortcomings and the limits of criminal law in preventing sexual assault. It emphasizes prevention efforts for the internet and academic institutions. 

Preventing the Sexual Victimization of Children: Psychological, Legal, and Public Policy Perspectives (Charles Patrick Ewing, 2014)
This book analyzes why sexual abuse of children remains a chronic problem worldwide despite legal and social prevention efforts. It analyzes problems including internet sexual abuse, institutional sexual abuse, and child prostitution in depth, suggesting policy reforms.

Protecting Our Kids? How Sex Offender Laws Are Failing Us (Emily Horowitz, 2015)
This book presents a critical examination of sex offender laws and ongoing rehabilitation and warning efforts such as sex offender registries, arguing that they may be ineffective and invoke unnecessary fear in society.

Reckoning: The Epic Battle Against Sexual Abuse and Harassment (Linda Hirsh, 2019)
This history recounts efforts to fight back against sexual harassment and crime, from feminist activists' efforts to fight sexual harassment in the 1960s to high profile sexual assaults of recent years.

Sex and Harm in the Age of Consent (Joseph J. Fischel, 2016)
This book takes a critical approach to some sex offender laws and status, noting parallels between modern understandings of sexual offense to past moral panics involving sexual minorities. It advocates for differentiating degrees of sexual offense rather than uniform demonization of offenders.

Sex Offenders: A Criminal Career Approach (Arie Aart Blokland & Patrick Lussier eds., 2015)
Criminologists, psychologists, and other scientific experts explore the phenomenon of sexual offense and the lifecycles of offenders, including juvenile and female offenders. Commentators advocate for policy upgrades to help redeem sex offenders and to protect society. 

Sex Offenders: Punish, Help, Change or Control? (Jo Brayford et al. eds., 2012)
Although this exploration of criminal and social management of sexual offenders primarily concerns the United Kingdom, it includes universal information about the identities and characteristics of offenders and the impact of punishment and control methods.

Sex, Sexuality, Law, and (In)justice (Henry F. Fradella & Jennifer M. Sumner eds., 2016)
This anthology includes perspectives on the impact of sexuality and gender, including LGBTQ+ identities on the legal system, with an emphasis on sex crimes, victimology, and the constitutional bases of legal provisions.

Web Resources

Arizona Criminal Justice Commission: Publications
The state tracks rates of crimes including sexual assaults and evaluates state services.

Bureau of Justice Statistics: Rape and Sexual Assault
Data regarding unwanted sexual contact as well as verbal threats, people of any gender.

Mandatory Minimum Penalties for Federal Sex Offenses
Federal analysis of mandatory minimum penalties in the federal system with statistical data on crimes and punishments.

National Criminal Justice Reference Service: Sex Offenders
A compilation of information from the federal Department of Justice including statistics on sex offenses and offenders, including their registration, supervision, treatment, and recidivism.  

SMART: Office of Sex Offender Sentencing, Monitoring, Apprehending, Registering, and Tracking
Federal agency supporting governments' sex offender programs and tracking legal developments regarding sex offenders.

Dru Sjodin National Sex Offender Public Website
A searchable compilation of sex offender data from federal, state, territorial, and tribal governments.

Sex Offender Registry Websites
The FBI provides a list of registries for states, territories, and tribes.