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Sandra Day O'Connor: Her Life and Legacy: Publications About Sandra Day O'Connor

On April 5, 2006, ASU Law was officially renamed the Sandra Day O'Connor College of Law at Arizona State University. It was the first law school to be named after a woman.

Publications About Sandra Day O'Connor



Susan Mann, Sandra Day O’Connor: The Making of a Precedent, 16 Stanford Lawyer 4 (1981).

Alan A. Matheson, Justice Sandra D. O’Connor, 1982 Ariz. St. L. J. 649 (1981).


Beverly B. Cook, Women as Supreme Court Candidates: From Florence Allen to Sandra O'Connor, 65 Judicature 314 (1982).

Charles D. Kelso, Justice O'Connor Replaces Justice Stewart: What Effect on Constitutional Cases?, 13 Pac. L.J. 259 (1982).

Carl R. Schenker, Reading’ Justice Sandra Day O'Connor, 31 Cath. U. L. Rev. 487 (1982).


Robert E. Riggs, Justice O'Connor: A First Term Appraisal, 1983 BYU L. Rev. 1.


Richard F. Duncan, Justice O'Connor, the Constitution, and the Trimester Approach to Abortion: A Liberty on a Collision Course with Itself, 29 Cath. Law. 275 (1984).


Barbara Olson Bruckmann, student author, Justice Sandra Day O'Connor: Trends Toward Judicial Restraint, 42 Wash. & Lee L. Rev. 1185 (1985).

Richard A. Cordray & James T. Vradelis, student authors, The Emerging Jurisprudence of Justice O'Connor, 52 U. Chi. L. Rev. 389 (1985).

Joan S. Marie, Her Honor: The Rancher’s DaughterSaturday Evening Post, September 1985.

Margaret A. Miller, student author, Justice Sandra Day O'Connor: Token or Triumph from a Feminist Perspective, 15 Golden Gate U. L. Rev. 493 (1985).

John M. Scheb & Lee W. Ailshie, Justice Sandra Day O'Connor and the ‘Freshman Effect’, 69 Judicature 9 (1985).


Edward V. Heck & Paula C. Arledge, Justice O'Connor and the First Amendment 1981–84, 13 Pepp. L. Rev. 993 (1986).

Arnold H. Loewy, Rethinking Government Neutrality Towards Religion Under the Establishment Clause: The Untapped Potential of Justice O'Connor's Insight, 64 N.C. L. Rev. 1049 (1986).

Barbara C. Shea, Sandra Day O'Connor — Woman, Lawyer, Justice: Her First Four Terms on the Supreme Court, 55 UMKC L. Rev. 1 (1986).

Suzanna Sherry, Civic Virtue and the Feminine Voice in Constitutional Adjudication, 72 Va. L. Rev. 543 (1986).


Kristine M. Bartanen, The Rhetoric of Dissent in Justice O'Connor's Akron Opinion, 52 S. Speech Comm. J. 240 (1987).

Donald L. Beschle, The Conservative as Liberal: The Religion Clauses, Liberal Neutrality, and the Approach of Justice O'Connor, 62 Notre Dame L. Rev. 151 (1987).


Benjamin D. Feder, And a Child Shall Lead Them: Justice O'Connor, the Principle of Religious Liberty and Its Practical Application, 8 Pace L. Rev. 249 (1988).

Richter H. Moore, Justice Sandra Day O'Connor: Law and Order Justice?, 63 Int'l Soc. Sci. Rev. 147 (1988).


Susan R. Estrich & Kathleen M. Sullivan, Abortion Politics: Writing for an Audience of One, 138 U. Pa. L. Rev. 119 (1989).

G. Hackett & A. McDaniel, "All Eyes on Justice O’Connor," Newsweek, May 1, 1989.

Susan M. Halatyn, student author, Sandra Day O'Connor, Abortion, and Compromise for the Court, 5 Touro L. Rev. 327 (1989).

Alexander Wohl, O’Connor, J., Concurring, 75 A.B.A. J. 42 (1989).


M. David Gelfand & Keith Werhan, Federalism and Separation of Powers on a ‘Conservative’ Court: Currents and Cross-Currents from Justices O'Connor and Scalia, 64 Tul. L. Rev. 1443 (1990).

Thomas R. Haggard, Mugwump, Mediator, Machiavellian, or Majority? The Role of Justice O'Connor in the Affirmative Action Cases, 24 Akron L. Rev. 47 (1990).

Marci A. Hamilton, Justice O'Connor's Opinion in Feist Publications, Inc. v. Rural Telephone Service Co.: An Uncommon Though Characteristic Approach, 38 J. Copyright Soc'y U.S.A. 83 (1990).

Karen O'Connor & Jeffrey A. Segal, Justice Sandra Day O'Connor and the Supreme Court's Reaction to Its First Female Member, 10 Women & Pol. 95 (1990).


Beverly Berwald, Justice Sandra Day O’Connor: A New Justice, A New Voice (1991).

Marci A. Hamilton, Justice O'Connor's Intellectual Property Opinions: Currents and Crosscurrents, 13 Women's Rts. L. Rep. 71 (1991).

Barbara Palmer, Feminist or Foe? Justice Sandra Day O'Connor, Title VII Sex-Discrimination, and Support for Women's Rights, 13 Women's Rts. L. Rep. 159 (1991).

Twila L. Perry, Justice O'Connor and Children and the Law, 13 Women's Rts. L. Rep. 81 (1991).

Rocco Potenza, student author, Affirmative Action: Will Justice O'Connor Author Its End?, 22 U. Tol. L. Rev. 805 (1991).

Dorothy E. Roberts, Sandra Day O'Connor, Conservative Discourse, and Reproductive Freedom, 13 Women's Rts. L. Rep. 95 (1991).

Alfred Slocum, At the Crossroads of Civil Rights: Tension Between the Wartime Amendments in the Jurisprudence of Justice O'Connor, 13 Women's Rts. L. Rep.105 (1991).

Nadine Taub, Sandra Day O'Connor and Women's Rights, 13 Women's Rts. L. Rep.113 (1991–1992).

George C. Thomas III, Justice O'Connor's Pragmatic View of Coerced Self-Incrimination, 13 Women's Rts. L. Rep. 117 (1991).

Stephen J. Wermiel, O'Connor: A Dual Role — An Introduction, 13 Women's Rts. L. Rep. 129 (1991).


Paula C. Arledge & Edward V. Heck, A Freshman Justice Confronts the Constitution: Justice O'Connor and the First Amendment, 45 W. Pol. Q. 761 (1992).

Susan Behuniak-Long, Justice Sandra Day O'Connor and the Power of Maternal Legal Thinking, 54 Rev. Pol. 417 (1992).

Alfred W. Blumrosen, Justice O'Connor and the Destabilization of the Griggs Principle of Employment Discrimination, 14 Women's Rts. L. Rep. 315 (1992).


David B. Anders, Justices Harlan and Black Revisited: The Emerging Dispute between Justice O'Connor and Justice Scalia over Unenumerated Fundamental Rights, 61 Fordham L. Rev. 895 (1993).

Sue Davis, The Voice of Sandra Day O'Connor, 77 Judicature 134 (1993).

Robyn S. Goodman, Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O'Connor's First Amendment Approach to Free Expression: A Decade in Review, Comm. & L., Dec. 1993, at 3 (1993).

Lisa R. Graves, student author, Looking Back, Looking Ahead: Justice O'Connor, Ideology and the Advice and Consent Process, 3 Cornell J.L. & Pub. Pol'y 121 (1993).

David O. Stewart, Holding the Center, 79 A.B.A. J. 48 (1993).


Joel S. Jacobs, Endorsement as ‘Adoptive Action’: A Suggested Definition of, and an Argument for, Justice O'Connor's Establishment Clause Test, 22 Hastings Const. L.Q. 29 (1994).

Michael E. Solimine & Susan E. Wheatley, Rethinking Feminist Judging, 70 Ind. L.J. 891 (1994–1995).

Jennifer E. Spreng, student author, Failing Honorably: Balancing Tests, Justice O'Connor and Free Exercise of Religion, 38 St. Louis U. L.J. 837 (1994).


Jilda M. Aliotta, Justice O'Connor and the Equal Protection Clause: A Feminine Voice?, 78 Judicature 232 (1995).

Cynthia L. Cates & Wayne V. McIntosh, Retail Jurisprudence: The Judge as Entrepreneur in the Marketplace of Ideas, 11 J.L. & Pol. 709 (1995).


Carl Cannon, Law & Order, 21 Working Woman 53 (1996).

Stephen E. Gottlieb, Three Justices in Search of a Character: The Moral Agendas of Justices O'Connor, Scalia and Kennedy, 49 Rutgers L. Rev. 219 (1996).

Nancy Maveety, Justice Sandra Day O'Connor: Strategist on the Supreme Court (1996).

Patricia A. Sullivan & Steven R. Goldzwig, Abortion and Undue Burdens: Justice Sandra Day O'Connor and Judicial Decision-Making, 16 Women & Pol. 27 (1996).


Elizabeth F. Defeis, A Tribute to Justice Sandra Day O'Connor from an International Perspective, 27 Seton Hall L. Rev. 391 (1997).

Justin Schwartz, A Not Quite Color-Blind Constitution: Racial Discrimination and Racial Preference in Justice O'Connor's 'Newest' Equal Protection Jurisprudence, 58 Ohio St. L.J. 1055 (1997).


Jennifer R. Byrne, student author, Toward a Colorblind Constitution: Justice O'Connor's Narrowing of Affirmative Action, 42 St. Louis U. L.J. 619 (1998).

Suzanna Sherry, Justice O'Connor's Dilemma: The Baseline Question, 39 Wm. & Mary L. Rev. 865 (1998).

Robert W. Van Sickel, Not a Particularly Different Voice: The Jurisprudence of Sandra Day O'Connor (1998).


Judith Olans Brown, Wendy E. Parmet & Mary E. O'Connell, The Rugged Feminism of Sandra Day O'Connor, 32 Ind. L. Rev. 1219 (1999).

Steve France, Opinions with Style, 85 A.B.A. J. 38 (1999).


Vikram David Amar, Of Hobgoblins and Justice O'Connor's Jurisprudence of Equality, 32 McGeorge L. Rev. 823 (2001).

Alan Brownstein, A Decent Respect for Religious Liberty and Religious Equality: Justice O'Connor's Interpretation of the Religion Clauses of the First Amendment, 32 McGeorge L. Rev. 837 (2001).

Erwin Chemerinsky, Justice O'Connor and Federalism, 32 McGeorge L. Rev. 877 (2001).

Peggy Cooper Davis & Carol Gilligan, A Woman Decides: Justice O'Connor and Due Process Rights of Choice, 32 McGeorge L. Rev. 895 (2001).

Charles D. Kelso & R. Randall Kelso, Sandra Day O'Connor: A Justice Who Has Made a Difference in Constitutional Law, 32 McGeorge L. Rev. 915 (2001).

Joan Tarpley, A Comment on Justice O'Connor's Quest for Power and Its Impact on African American Wealth, 53 S.C. L. Rev. 117 (2001).


Victoria Ashley, student author, Death Penalty Redux: Justice Sandra Day O'Connor's Role in the Rehnquist Court and the Future of the Death Penalty in America, 54 Baylor L. Rev. 407 (2002).

Anne S. Lewis, Even Cowgirls Get Their DueWall Street Journal, June 13, 2002, eastern edition.

Jean Hoefer Toal, Reply to Professor Tarpley's Comment Regarding Justice Sandra Day O'Connor  (Response to Joan Tarpley, South Carolina Law Review, vol. 53, p. 117, 2001), 54 S.C. L. Rev. 267 (2002).


Vikram David Amar & Evan H. Caminker, Constitutional Sunsetting? Justice O'Connor's Closing Comments in Grutter, 30 Hastings Const. L.Q. 541 (2003).

Kenneth L. Karst, Justice O'Connor and the Substance of Equal Citizenship, 2003 Sup. Ct. Rev. 357.

Tony Mauro, Law’s Smallest Club, 25 Am. Law. 90 (2003).

Joel L. Selig, The Michigan Affirmative Action Cases: Justice O'Connor, Bakke Redux, and the Mice that Roared but Did Not Prevail, 76 Temp. L. Rev. 579 (2003).

Tyson R. Smith, student author, Shades of Green: Justice O'Connor and the Environment, 18 J. Envtl. L. & Litig. 365 (2003).

Evan Thomas & Stuart Taylor Jr., Center CourtNewsweek, July 7, 2003.


Edward N. Stoner & J. Michael Showalter, Judicial Deference to Educational Judgment: Justice O'Connor's Opinion in Grutter Reapplies Longstanding Principles, as Shown by Rulings Involving College Students in the Eighteen Months Before Grutter, 30 J.C. & U.L. 583 (2004).

Robert Zelnick, Swing Dance: Justice O'Connor and the Michigan Muddle (2004).


Joan Biskupic, Sandra Day O'Connor: How the First Woman on the Supreme Court Became Its Most Influential Justice (2005).

Richard Brust, Balancing ACT, 91 A.B.A. J. 34 (2005).

C. Lincoln Combs, student author, A Curious Choice: Hibbs v. Winn as a Case Study of Justice Sandra Day O'Connor's Balancing Jurisprudence, 37 Ariz. St. L.J.183 (2005).

Cynthia L. Cooper & Jane E. Stromseth, O’Connor’s Legacy: Landmark Decisions on Rights for Women and Minorities (2005).

John Cranford & Kenneth Jost, Journey to the Center of the Bench, 63 CQ Weekly1815 (2005).

Matthew J. Kita, Federalism on the High Seas: The Admiralty Jurisprudence of Justice Sandra Day O'Connor, 18 U.S.F. Mar. L.J. 131 (2005).

Brenda Kruse, student author, Women of the Highest Court: Does Gender Bias or Personal Life Experiences Influence Their Opinions?, 36 U. Tol. L. Rev. 995 (2005).

Dahlia Lithwick, Judging Sandra, 27 Am. Law. 160 (2005).

Ann Carey McFeatters, Sandra Day O'Connor: Justice in the Balance (2005).

Evan Thomas, Queen of the CenterNewsweek, July 11, 2005.

Stephanie Francis Ward, Following the First Woman, 91 A.B.A. J. 38 (2005).


Michael P. Allen, Justice O'Connor and the ‘Right to Die’: Constitutional Promises Unfulfilled, 14 Wm. & Mary Bill Rts. J. 821 (2006).

Erwin Chemerinsky, The Assumptions of Federalism, 58 Stanford L. Rev. 1763(2006).

Matthew K. Dames, O’Connor’s Copyright Legacy, 23 Info. Today 20 (2006).

Richard A. Epstein, The Federalism Decisions of Justices Rehnquist and O'Connor: Is Half a Loaf Enough?, 58 Stan. L. Rev. 1793 (2006).

Marie A. Failinger, In Praise of Contextuality: Justice O'Connor and the Establishment Clause, 29 Hamline L. Rev. 7 (2006).

Michelle T. Friedland, A Wise Justice, and a Great Boss, 58 Stan. L. Rev. 117(2006).

Joel K. Goldstein, Justice O'Connor's Twenty-Five Year Expectation: The Legitimacy of Durational Limits in Grutter, 67 Ohio St. L.J. 83 (2006).

Ruth Bader Ginsburg, A Tribute to Justice Sandra Day O’Connor, 119 Harv. L. Rev.1238 (2006).

Wilson Ray Huhn, The Constitutional Jurisprudence of Sandra Day O'Connor: A Refusal to ‘Foreclose the Unanticipated’, 39 Akron L. Rev. 373 (2006).

Craig Joyce, A Good Judge, 31 J. Sup. Ct. Hist. 100 (2006).

Craig Joyce,  Afterword, Lazy B and the Nation’s Court: Pragmatism in the Service of Principle, 119 Harvard L. Rev. 1257(2006).

Anthony M. Kennedy, William Rehnquist and Sandra Day O’Connor: An Expression of Appreciation, 58 Stanford L. Rev. 1663 (2006).

Susan Raeker-Jordan, Impeachment Calls and Death Threats: Assessing Criticisms of the Death Penalty Jurisprudence of Justices Kennedy and O'Connor, 52 Wayne L. Rev. 1127 (2006).

Deborah Jones Merritt, Justice Sandra Day O’Connor: The Framers’ “First Woman”, 31 J. Sup. Ct. Hist. 107 (2006).

Eric J. Segall, Justice O'Connor and the Rule of Law, 17 U. Fla. J.L. & Pub. Pol'y107 (2006).

John Paul Stevens, Tribute to Justice O’Connor, 31 J. Sup. Ct. Hist. 99 (2006).

Cass R. Sunstein, Problems with Minimalism, 58 Stan. L. Rev. 1899 (2006).


Paul Bender, Justice O'Connor's Race and Gender Jurisprudence, 39 Ariz. St. L.J.829 (2007).

Ruth Colker, Justice Sandra Day O'Connor's Friends, 68 Ohio St. L.J. 517 (2007).

Martin D. Ginsburg, Some Reflections on Imperfection, 39 Ariz. St. L. J. 949(2007).

Myron C. Grauer, Justice O'Connor's Approach to Tax Cases: Could She Have Led the Court Toward a More Collaborative Role for the Judiciary in the Development of Tax Law?, 39 Ariz. St. L.J. 69 (2007).

Arthur D. Hellman, Justice O'Connor and ‘The Threat to Judicial Independence’: The Cowgirl Who Cried Wolf?, 39 Ariz. St. L.J. 845 (2007).

Stewart Jay, Ideologue or Pragmatist: Sandra Day O'Connor's Views on Abortion Rights, 39 Ariz. St. L.J. 777 (2007).

Bradley W. Joondeph, The Deregulatory Value of Justice O'Connor's Federalism, 44 Hous. L. Rev. 507 (2007).

Deborah Jones Merritt, The Future of Religious Pluralism: Justice O'Connor and the Establishment Clause, 39 Ariz. St. L.J. 895 (2007).

L.A. Powe, Judges Struck by Lightning: Some Observations on the Politics of Recent Supreme Court Appointments, 39 Ariz. St. L.J. 875 (2007).


Keith Aoki, Balancing Act: Reflections on Justice O’Connor’s Intellectual Property Jurisprudence, 44 Houston L Rev 965 (2007-2008)

Richard Brust, A Cowgirl Rides the Circuits: Retired Justice Sandra Day O’Connor Puts her Band on Federal Appellate Courts, 94 ABA Journal 26 (2008).

Cindy Hayostek, Sandra Day O’Connor: Douglas Ancestors, (2008).

Joan Biskupic, The Alito/O'Connor Switch, 35 Pepp. L. Rev. 495 (2008).

Michael Comiskey, The Supreme Court Appointment Process: Lessons from Filling the Rehnquist and O'Connor Vacancies, 41 PS: Political Science & Politics 355 (2008).

Julie Graves Krishnaswami, Justice Sandra Day O'Connor: A Selected Annotated Bibliography, 57 Cath U. L. Rev. 1099 (2008).

Nancy Maveety, Queen's Court: Judicial Power in the Rehnquist Era (2008).


Jess Bravin, "Change of Venue: In Retirement, Justice O'Connor Still Rules," Wall Street Journal, August 11, 2009, eastern edition.

Michael S. Greco & Stephen J. Wermiel, Human Rights Hero: Sandra Day O’Connor, Human Rights, Jan. 2009, at 26, 25.

Dick M. Carpenter & John K. Ross, Testing O'Connor and Thomas: Does the Use of Eminent Domain Target Poor and Minority Communities?, 46 Urban Studies 2447 (2009).


Scott Bales, Introduction: Justice Sandra Day O’Connor (Ret.) Symposium, 43 Ariz. St. L. J. 289 (2011).


Richard L. Barnes, A Woman of the West, But Not the Tribes: Justice Sandra Day O'Connor and the State-Tribe Relationship, 58 Loy. L. Rev. 39 (2012).

Kelly B. Landis, From Courtroom to Classroom: Justice Sandra Day O'Connor's Civics Learning Revolution, Judges J., Summer 2012, at 20.


Bryant Garth, Introduction: The Women at the United States Supreme Court, 42 SW. L. Rev. 501 (2013).

Tani Cantil-Sakauye, Keynote Address: The Women at the United States Supreme Court, 42 SW. L. Rev. 535 (2013).

Judy Beckner Sloan, Closing Remarks: The Women at the United States Supreme Court, 42 SW. L. Rev. 545 (2013).

Ann Farmer, Being First – Sandra Day O’Connor and Madeleine Albright in Conversation, Perspectives, Summer 2013, at 4.


Linda Hirshman, Sisters in Law: How Sandra Day O'Connor and Ruth Bader Ginsburg Went to the Supreme Court and Changed the World (2015).

Steven H. Hobbs, O'Connor's Canons: The Professional Responsibility Jurisprudence of Justice Sandra Day O'Connor, 52 Willamette L. Rev. 99 (2015).


Devon Applegate, The Intersection of the Takings Clause and Rising Sea Levels: Justice O'Connor's Concurrence in Palazzo Could Prevent Climate Change Chaos, 43 B.C. Envtl. Aff. L. Rev. 511 (2016).

Mary Jane Mossman, Gender and Judging: Reflections on “Sisters in Law”, 28 Can. J. Women & Law 685 (2016) (reviewing Linda Hirshman, Sisters in Law: How Sandra Day O'Connor and Ruth Bader Ginsburg Went to the Supreme Court and Changed the World).


Sonia Sotomayor, Sandra Day O'Connor: Champion of Civic Engagement, Time, May 1, 2017, at 68.

William Usnick & Lee Usnick, Supreme Court “Majoritizing”: What Justice O’Connor and Justice Kennedy Can Tell Us About the Near Future, 27 S. L. J. 149 (2017).

Kenneth M. Murchison, Influences and Influence: Justice Sandra Day O'Connor and Constitutional Doctrine, 35 Quinnipiac Law Review 391 (2017).

Evan Thomas, First: Sandra Day O'Connor (2019).



Myles Lynk, Human Rights Hero: Justice Sandra Day O'Connor and Her Legacy of Civics Education47 Hum. Rts. Mag. (January 4, 2022).

Trailblazer and Inspiration

But I am especially honored today by the presence today of Retired Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, Sandra Day O’Connor – the first woman ever to serve on the highest court in our land. In her retirement, Justice O'Connor has spoken across this country and across the world, inspiring audiences about the critical importance for every society of the rule of law and an independent judiciary. Justice O'Connor’s vision is best summed up in her own words: “Society as a whole benefits immeasurably from a climate in which all persons, regardless of race or gender, may have the opportunity to earn respect, responsibility, advancement and remuneration based on ability.” And I just want to say on a personal note, that Justice O’Connor is more than a trailblazer. She an inspiration for each and every one of us, but she's especially an inspiration for me.

 - Secretary Condoleezza Rice
Remarks at Senior Roundtable for Women's Justice, Loy Henderson Auditorium, Washington, DC, March 12, 2008